All the fruit trees, or at least a large majority share a characteristic, they are extremely attractive to insects. The apple tree, although quite resistant to insect pests, does not constitute an exception and may also be affected by pests. Here we speak of the three pests that most frequently attack these fruit.
The worm in the apple (Rhagoletis pomonella Ronsheim) is a small fly of about 5 mm in length, which causes damage to various crops, among them the apple-tree obviously. The adults are identified by a white dot on the chest, and a drawing in the form of F in its wings. The damage often manifests itself in the appearance of numerous holes in the skin of the apple; if you open the fruit you can see small tunnels and areas of discoloration. They spend the winter under ground in the form of pupae in mid-summer begin to emerge as adults. Feed for a couple of weeks and reach sexual maturity perform to be placed under the skin of the apples. Within a week hatch the eggs and the larvae begin to feed on the flesh of the apple. We fight it with chemical means, and is also used in the biological control of with wasp parasitic. A native of north America before the introduction of the apple was fed exclusively on the fruits of the hawthorn.
The apple moth or codlingmoth ( Cydia pomonella ) is native to Europe but introduced to America at the same time that the apple tree. His adult form is typical of any moth and measures about 2.5 cm in length. In its larval form it is a caterpillar of pink color and brown head that measures 1.5 cm in length. Produces two generations a year, except in the coastal area of the northwest of north America where there are three generations.
This pest is difficult to manage for its ability of an infestation, with a rate of 90% in many cases. Biological control is quite difficult because the larvae are protected within the fruit. The only phase in which they are sensitive is at the time of the start and then used a type of trichogramma parasitic. Also use female pheromones to make it difficult for the male to locate the female and to fertilize. All of this is usual treatment with pesticides. We have conducted tests by spraying kaolin on the apple and it seems to work pretty well. This clay hinders the recognition of the apple trees by the moths and in addition it seems that not so are pleasant. It is a treatment that must be repeated periodically and completely removed at the time of collection.
The curculio of the plum (Conotrachelus water lily) is a small beetle about 5 mm long, brown, and black. It is a pest that apparently, for the moment, is limited to the area of the Rocky Mountains in north America. In this case the damage to the crop can do both adult specimens and larvae. The females produce a wound in the fruit filling with a flap of skin to protect their eggs. Adults can also eat the mature fruit producing a large number of holes with their beaks. The management of this pest is also quite difficult and is typically done with pesticides at the first sign of their presence. Quickly remove the fruits affected is also often effective, as well as the physical removal of the weevils by shaking the branches of the tree. Spread out a tarp or cardboard under the fruit and go picking up and removing the weevils down.